Space-time plots (left) and difference patterns (right) for the states of rest between earthquakes, as simulated with a cellular automaton.
(a) lowest dissipation of energy, chaotic behaviour; (b) "class 4" behaviour,
i.e. erratic alternation of chaotic and predictable behaviour; (c) highest
dissipation, predictable behaviour.
|States of rest between earthquakes
M. Markus, H. Emmerich, C. Schäfer, P. Almeida and A. Ribeiro, "A binary description of earthquakes", in: 'Fractals and Dynamic Systems in Geosciences', (ed. by J. Kruhl), Wuerz Publ. Co., Winnipeg (1994), pp. 181-196
M. Markus, A. Czajka, D. Boehm, T. Hahn, T. Schulte and A. Ribeiro,
Phenomenology of Cellular Automata Simulations of Natural Processes, in:
Cellular Automata and
Complex System (ed. by E. Goles & S. Martinez), Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp. 23-47 (1999)
M. Markus, I. Kusch, A. Ribeiro and P. Almeida, "Class 4 cellular automata
simulating diverse physical systems", Int. J. Bifurcation & Chaos 6,