(in cooperation with Antonio Ribeiro, Universidade de Lisboa)

Space-time plots (left) and difference patterns (right) for the states of rest between earthquakes, as simulated with a cellular automaton.

(a) lowest dissipation of energy, chaotic behaviour; (b) "class 4" behaviour, i.e. erratic alternation of chaotic and predictable behaviour; (c) highest dissipation, predictable behaviour.

States of rest between earthquakes 
(time downwards)
Difference patterns








M. Markus, H. Emmerich, C. Schäfer, P. Almeida and A. Ribeiro, "A binary description of earthquakes", in: 'Fractals and Dynamic Systems in Geosciences', (ed. by J. Kruhl), Wuerz Publ. Co., Winnipeg (1994), pp. 181-196

M. Markus, A. Czajka, D. Boehm, T. Hahn, T. Schulte and A. Ribeiro, Phenomenology of Cellular Automata Simulations of Natural Processes, in: Cellular Automata and
Complex System (ed. by E. Goles & S. Martinez), Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp. 23-47 (1999)

M. Markus, I. Kusch, A. Ribeiro and P. Almeida, "Class 4 cellular automata simulating diverse physical systems", Int. J. Bifurcation & Chaos 6, 1817-1827 (1996)
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